The most common urogenital issue in dogs and cats is caused by small stones forming in the bladder and then traveling into the urethra. This can cause difficulty or inability to urinate. Bladder stones are very common in dogs and frequently diagnosed incidentally when an X-ray is perfromed. Some can be treated by diet and some require surgery to remove them. Each pet may differ slightly on what is needed to best treat bladder stones. Most general veterinarians with experience will have an opinion on the best option(s). Male cats in particular are predisposed to urethral blockage which necessitates perineal urethrostomy or PU. We commonly perform urogenital surgery in dogs and cats for urethral obstruction. Bladder surgery to remove stones is a common surgery to perform. The most common presentation is a male dog that is having difficulty urinating. In female dogs, bladder stones can cause recurrent urinary tract infections. Most dogs and cats will respond very well to surgery on the bladder and usually are discharged 1-3 days after surgery.
Above: Bladder stones in a male dog. They appear as the white round structures to the right of the picture. You can see several small stones in the upper left of the picture, these are stones in the kidneys.